About Turkey

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FACTS ABOUT TURKEY

Official Name Republic of Turkey
National Anthem Istiklal Marsi (Independence March)
Founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
System of Goverment Republican Parliamentary Democracy
Area 783.562 square kilometres
Coastal Length 7.200 km
Coastal Borders Mediterranean Sea at south, Aegean Sea at west, Black Sea at north
Capital City Ankara
Language Turkish
Religion Muslim 99%
Neighboring Countries Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Iraq, Armenia, Iran, Syria
Currency Turkish Lira (TL)
Number of Cities 81
Number of Regions 7
Victory Day 30th August
Rebuplic Day 29th October
Largest Cities Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Antalya, Konya, Bursa, Kayseri, Samsun, Trabzon, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Kocaeli, Diyarbakir, Sakarya, Mersin, Gaziantep
Lifestyle Turkish lifestyle is a vivid mosaic; juxtaposing the Occident and the Orient, the ancient and the modern
Hospitality Hospitality is a cornerstone of Turkish culture, and Turks believe that visitors should be treated as Guests sent by God.
Cuisine Turkish cuisine is renowned as one of the world's best
Weather It is said that all of the four seasons exist in Turkey.
Tourism Turkey has so much to offer her visitors, therefore this country has recently become one of the world's most popular tourism destinations

 

THINGS YOU CAN DO IN TURKEY

Turkey is one of the fastest growing tourism destinations in the world, a truly fascinating country, culturally and historically, a great place to visit. Beautiful beaches, outdoor activities, natural wonders, blue voyage tours, historical places and religious sites, shopping alternatives, entertainment and nightlife, world heritage sites and more. Turkey has so many fantastic things to do and see for visitors.

 

      

GEOGRAPHY

Turkey is a large peninsula that bridges the continents of Europe and Asia. Turkey is surrounded on three sides by the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Aegean Sea. Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, is built on land in the Bosporus seaway. The city is partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Turkey is larger than the state of Texas.

 

Turkey is one of the most earthquake prone areas on Earth and has suffered from 13 earthquakes in the past 70 years. The North Anatolian Fault extends hundreds of miles from the Sea of Marmara in the western part of the country to the Eastern Anatolian Highlands. The fault moves back and forth about 8 inches (20 centimeters) a year.

 

Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat has two peaks, with Great Ararat reaching 16,945 feet (5,165 meters). The mountain is considered sacred by many people and is believed to be where Noah beached his ark after the great flood.

 

 

NATURE

Turkey is a resting location for birds on their migratory journey between their summer and winter homes. They flock to Kus Golu, or Bird Lake in a protected national forest that is surrounded by reed marshes. The first national park in Turkey opened in 1958.

 

Today there are 39 parks where rare species and their habitats are protected. Several species are at risk, including the northern bald eagle which is critically endangered.

 

At one time, Turkey was home to jackals, lynx, wolves, and bears but those animal species are rare now. The Turkish horned viper snake has spikelike scales that poke upward near their eyes.

 

Once known as Cotton Castle, the white cliffs in Pamukkale in western Turkey are made of a calcium-rich mineral called travertine. The cliffs look like a sheet of ice covering a hillside from a distance. A spring flows from pool to pool. The cascade is 1.7 miles (2.7 kilometers) long.

 

 

HISTORY

Turkey is home to one of the earliest settlements in the world. Built 8,800 years ago, Catal Hoyuk was a labyrinth of 150 mud homes joined together. There were no streets in between, so people had to enter the homes through holes in the roof!

 

About 4,000 years ago, the Hittites created an empire in the central part of what is now called Turkey in Anatolia. They ruled for hundreds of years. The Trojan War took place when the Hittites were losing power. The ruins of the city of Troy are believed to be in the city of Hissarlik in Anatolia.

 

King Midas ruled western Turkey around 700 B.C. In 334 B.C., Alexander the Great took Anatolia under Macedonian Greek rule until Rome took over and Anatolia became part of Roman Asia Minor. In A.D. 330, Constantine became the Roman emperor and formed a new capital called Constantinople. After the fall of the Roman Empire it became part of the Byzantine Empire.

 

The city of Constantinople was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453 and Turkey became part of the Ottoman Empire. After World War I, the country was invaded by Greece, which led to the Turkish war of Independence in 1920, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In 1923, the Turkish assembly declared Turkey a republic.

 

The city formally became Istanbul in 1923. Turkey became a secular country, meaning there is a separation between religion and government. Women gained the right to vote in 1934.



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